A dose of MMR vaccine is usually given to children aged 12-13 months. A second dose is usually given as a preschool booster. The MMR vaccine is very safe and is not linked with autism or bowel diseases.
What does MMR mean?
MMR stands for measles, mumps and rubella. These are three different diseases which are caused by three different viruses. The vaccines given to immunise against measles, mumps and rubella are all combined into one injection - the MMR vaccine.
Even if you think your child has already had one of these diseases, your child should still have MMR immunisation.
Timetable for measles, mumps and rubella immunisation
- The first dose of vaccine is usually given between 12 and 13 months. It is usually given at the same time as the Hib/MenC vaccine - this stands for 'Haemophilus influenzae type b/meningitis C' and the pneumoccocal vaccine (given as separate injections).
- A second dose is usually given at age 3 years and 4 months to 5 years at the same time as the DTaP/IPV(polio) injection. (DTaP stands for diphtheria (D), tetanus (T) and acellular pertussis (aP) (whooping cough). IPV stands for inactivated polio vaccine. Polio is short for poliomyelitis.)
Even if a dose of MMR is delayed for any reason, it can still be given at a later age. If necessary, MMR vaccine can be given at any age.
Are there any side-effects?
Most children are perfectly well after having a dose of MMR vaccine. Serious problems with the MMR vaccine are extremely rare. However:
- Some children develop a mild fever (temperature) and a faint rash 7-10 days later. This should only last for 2-3 days and is of no concern.
- Mild reactions such as a slight fever, a mild sore throat and joint pains sometimes occur about 1-3 weeks after the injection. These soon subside and are of no consequence.
- A few children develop a mild swollen face (like a mild form of mumps) about three weeks later. Any swelling will gradually go down.
None of these reactions is infectious or serious. If necessary, you can give paracetamol or ibuprofen to ease pain and fever. Any reaction to the vaccine is much less after the second vaccine is given.
Who should not receive the vaccine?
- Pregnant women. Also, you should not become pregnant for one month after having a rubella (MMR) immunisation. It is safe, however, to have if you are breast-feeding.
- If you are having chemotherapy or if your immune system is suppressed for other reasons.
- If you are allergic to the medicines neomycin or gelatin (which are part of the vaccine). It is safe to give if you are allergic to eggs.
If you have had an anaphylactic reaction to egg-containing food then the MMR vaccine is usually given in hospital under controlled conditions.
MMR, autism and inflammatory bowel disease
In the past, there was been speculation that the MMR vaccine may somehow cause autism or inflammatory bowel disease. Recent large studies have all concluded that there is no evidence to link MMR immunisation to either of these conditions.
How serious are the illnesses prevented?
This is a highly infectious illness caused by the measles virus. Beginning like a bad cold, the child then develops a fever and a rash. The child feels miserable and may be unwell for a week or so with a bad cough and a high temperature. Complications occur in about 1 in 15 children with measles.
Measles is much more serious than many people think. In fact, of all childhood infections, it is the one most likely to cause the complication of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), sometimes resulting in brain damage. It can also cause convulsions, ear infections, bronchitis and pneumonia, which can lead to long-term lung problems. Each year a number of children die from measles. In developing countries it is a major cause of childhood death. Unfortunately, measles is becoming more common again in children in some areas of the UK. This is due to some children not receiving the MMR vaccine.
This infection typically causes inflammation and swelling of the glands around the face, neck and jaw. It is usually a mild illness but complications occur in some children, such as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), orchitis (inflammation of the testes), meningitis and encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Mumps may cause permanent deafness in one ear. Mumps is equally dangerous for boys and girls.
Rubella (German measles)
This is usually a mild illness causing a rash, sore throat and swollen glands. However, if a pregnant women has rubella, the virus is likely to cause serious damage to the unborn child. Rubella can lead to damage to the heart, brain, hearing and sight. The baby is likely to be born with a very serious condition called the congenital rubella syndrome. (See separate leaflet called 'Pregnancy and Rubella' which provides more details on this condition.)
Since rubella immunisation was introduced in 1970 there has been a dramatic fall in the number of babies born with the congenital rubella syndrome. Rubella is now a very uncommon infection in the UK as a result for the vaccination programme.
Information on MMR vaccine from the Department of Health
Rubella and MMR
Information about rubella, congenital rubella syndrome, and immunisation against rubella. Sense was founded in 1955 as a support group for the parents of children born deafblind as a result of their mothers catching rubella in pregnancy.
Further reading & references
- Immunisation against infectious disease - the Green Book; Dept of Health (latest edition)
- MMR Action Plan, Public Health England (Jun 2013)
- Davidkin I, Kontio M, Paunio M, et al; MMR vaccination and disease elimination: the Finnish experience. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010 Sep;9(9):1045-53.
- Muscat M, Zimmerman L, Bacci S, et al; Toward rubella elimination in Europe: An epidemiological assessment. Vaccine. 2011 Dec 14.
- McIntyre P, Leask J; Improving uptake of MMR vaccine. BMJ. 2008 Apr 5;336(7647):729-30. Epub 2008 Feb 28.
|Original Author: Dr Tim Kenny||Current Version: Dr Louise Newson||Peer Reviewer: Dr John Cox|
|Last Checked: 21/02/2012||Document ID: 4291 Version: 42||© EMIS|
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