Impetigo is a common infection of the skin. It is contagious, which means it can be passed on by touching. Most cases occur in children, but it can affect anybody of any age. Antibiotic cream usually clears the infection quickly. Antibiotic tablets or liquid medicines are sometimes needed.
What is impetigo and what does it look like?
Impetigo is a skin infection. It is usually caused by a bacterium (germ) called Staphylococcus aureus. Another type of bacterium called Streptococcus pyogenes is sometimes the cause.
- Primary impetigo is when the infection affects healthy skin.
- Secondary impetigo is when the infection affects skin that is already 'broken' by another skin condition. For example, skin with eczema, psoriasis or a cut sometimes develops a secondary impetigo.
The picture shows a typical small patch of primary impetigo on the chin of a child. Other pictures of more severe cases can be found at www.dermnet.org.nz/bacterial/impetigo.html
The rash typically appears 4-10 days after you have been infected with bacteria. Small blisters develop at first. You may not see the blisters, as they usually burst to leave scabby patches on the skin. Sometimes only one or two patches develop. They often look like moist, golden crusts stuck on to the skin. An area of redness (inflammation) may develop under each patch. Sometimes affected skin is just red and inflamed - especially if the 'crust' is picked or scratched off.
The face is the most common area affected but impetigo can occur on any part of the skin. Patches of impetigo vary in size, but are usually quite small - a centimetre or so to begin with. Smaller 'satellite' patches may develop around an existing patch and spread outwards.
Who gets impetigo?
Impetigo commonly occurs in children, but it can affect anyone at any age. It occurs more commonly in hot humid weather. It is contagious, which means it can be passed on by touching. Sometimes outbreaks occur in families or in people who live in close communities, such as army barracks.
You are more prone to develop impetigo if you play contact sports, have diabetes or if you have a poor immune system. For example, if you are taking chemotherapy.
What is the treatment for impetigo?
There is a good chance that impetigo will clear without treatment after 2-3 weeks. However, treatment is usually advised as it is contagious, and severe infection sometimes develops.
A medication, in the form of an antibiotic cream used for 7-10 days, is the usual treatment for only a few small patches of impetigo on the skin. The usual treatment of choice is topical fusidic acid (such as Fucidin®), with an alternative being topical mupirocin (eg, Bactroban®). The crusts should be cleaned off with warm soapy water before the cream is applied. This allows the antibiotic to penetrate into the skin. Antibiotic liquid medicine or tablets may be prescribed in some situations. For example, if the rash is more widespread, or if you have a poor immune system, or if you are generally unwell with symptoms such as fever and swollen lymph glands. In such cases, the treatment of choice is oral flucloxacillin for seven days. However, if there is penicillin allergy the recommended alternative is oral clarithromycin for the same length of time.
As impetigo is contagious (it can be passed on by touching):
- Try not to touch patches of impetigo, and do not allow other children to touch them.
- Wash your hands after touching a patch of impetigo, and after applying antibiotic cream.
- Don't share towels, flannels, bathwater, etc, until the infection has gone.
- Children should be kept off school or nursery until there is no more blistering or crusting, or until 48 hours after antibiotic treatment has been started.
Some uncommon aspects of impetigo
If treatment does not work
Tell your doctor if the initial treatment does not work. A possible cause for this is if the germ (bacterium) causing the infection is resistant to the prescribed medication (antibiotic cream or tablet). A switch to a different antibiotic is sometimes needed if the first does not work.
If your impetigo returns (recurs)
It is common for children to have one or two bouts of impetigo at some stage. However, some people have recurring bouts of impetigo. A possible cause for this is that the bacteria that cause the infection can sometimes live in ('colonise') the nose. They do no harm there but sometimes spread out and multiply on the face to cause impetigo. If this is suspected, your doctor may take a 'swab' of the nose. A swab is a small ball of cotton wool on the end of a stick which is used to obtain mucus and cells. The swab is then sent to the laboratory to look for certain colonising bacteria. If necessary, a course of antibiotic cream applied to the area just inside the nose can clear these bacteria.
Some things to look out for
Another skin infection called cellulitis is sometimes mistaken for impetigo. Cellulitis is a 'deeper' skin infection. Normally, with cellulitis the area of skin affected is larger, the skin is red, swollen and tender and there are not usually any blisters or crusts. Cellulitis usually needs prompt treatment. See separate leaflet called Cellulitis and Erysipelas. In particular, see a doctor urgently if cellulitis develops close to an eye.
A patch of impetigo on the face near to the mouth is sometimes confused with a cold sore. Cold sores are due to a viral infection, and tend to recur in the same place from time to time. See separate leaflet called Cold Sores.
Further reading & references
- Sladden MJ, Johnston GA; Common skin infections in children. BMJ. 2004 Jul 10;329(7457):95-9.
- George A, Rubin G; A systematic review and meta-analysis of treatments for impetigo. Br J Gen Pract. 2003 Jun;53(491):480-7.
- Impetigo; NICE CKS, June 2009
- British National Formulary
Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. EMIS has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but make no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other health care professional for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. For details see our conditions.
Dr Tim Kenny
Dr Roger Henderson
Dr Helen Huins