Healthy Eating

A healthy diet may help to prevent certain long-term (chronic) diseases such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes. It may also help to reduce your risk of developing some cancers and help you to keep a healthy weight. This leaflet explains the principles of a healthy diet. It is general advice for most people. The advice may be different for certain groups of people, including pregnant women, people with certain health problems or those with special dietary requirements.

Your body needs energy to work normally and keep you alive. You obtain this energy from nutrients in the food that you eat - mostly, carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Minerals and vitamins are other nutrients that are also important in your diet to help your body stay healthy.

It is important to find the right balance between these different nutrients to achieve maximum health benefits (see below). A balanced diet generally contains food from each of the following food groups:

  • Starchy foods such as bread, rice, potatoes, pasta, etc.
  • Fruit and vegetables.
  • Milk and dairy foods.
  • Protein foods. These include meat, fish, eggs and other non-dairy sources of protein (including nuts, tofu, beans, pulses, etc).

Fatty and sugary foods are the fifth food group that you eat. However, only a small amount of what you eat should be made up from fatty and sugary foods.

In addition to the above, having plenty of fibre and water in your diet is also important for your health.

A healthy diet may help to prevent certain serious diseases such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes. It may also help to reduce your risk of developing some cancers. If you become sick, eating a healthy diet may help you to recover more quickly. Also, a main way of preventing obesity and overweight is to eat a healthy diet. If you are overweight or obese, eating a healthy diet can help you lose weight.

As a general rule, vegetables, fruits and starchy foods should provide the bulk of most of your meals. The remaining part of your diet should be made up from milk and dairy foods and protein foods. As mentioned above, you should limit the amount of foods and drinks that are high in fat or sugar.

Below, the principles of a healthy diet are explained. It is general advice for most people. If you have a specific health problem, or specific dietary requirements, this advice may not apply to you. If in doubt, you should check with your doctor. There are also some changes that pregnant women need to make to their diet. See separate leaflet called Planning to Become Pregnant for more details.

Carbohydrates

Much of the energy (calories) in what we eat comes from carbohydrate. These are divided into complex carbohydrates - generally starchy foods such as bread, pasta, rice and potatoes - and simple carbohydrates, which are the sweet sugary foods. There is a lot being written about how much of our food should be made up of carbohydrates but most of the guidelines recommend about one third. This should be mostly starchy carbohydrates, preferably higher-fibre options such as wholemeal bread, wholegrain cereals and brown rice.

Glycaemic index
The glycaemic index of a food is the rate at which the food raises blood sugar levels after it has been eaten. If a food has a low glycaemic index, it is processed by the body in a way which means it is less likely to lead to problems such as diabetes and obesity.

Higher-fibre carbohydrates, such as wholegrain cereals and wholemeal bread, tend to have a lower glycaemic index than more refined starches. This can mean they are a healthier option for this reason as well as for the fibre they contain.

Eat plenty of fruit and vegetables

New research suggests that eating at least seven portions of fruit and vegetables daily reduces the risks of many illnesses, such as stroke, heart disease and some cancers. Ideally there should be more vegetables than fruit in your diet. In addition to these benefits, fruit and vegetables:

  • Contain lots of fibre which helps to keep your bowels healthy. Problems such as constipation and diverticular disease are less likely to develop.
  • Contain plenty of vitamins and minerals, which are needed to keep you healthy.
  • Are naturally low in fat.
  • Are filling but are low in calories.

An average portion of vegetables may be about a handful, or about 80 g. Alternatively, one portion of fruit or vegetables is roughly equivalent to one of the following:

  • One large fruit such as an apple, pear, banana, orange, or a large slice of melon or pineapple.
  • Two smaller fruits such as plums, kiwis, satsumas, clementines, etc.
  • One cup (or a handful) of small fruits such as grapes, strawberries, raspberries, cherries, etc.
  • Two large tablespoons of fruit salad, stewed or canned fruit in natural juices.
  • One tablespoon of dried fruit.
  • One glass of fresh fruit juice (150 ml).
  • About three heaped tablespoons of any vegetable.
  • One dessert bowl of salad.

Some tips on how to increase fruit and vegetables in your diet include:

  • Try some different types that you have not tried before. The variety of tastes and textures may be surprising. Juices, frozen, canned, and dried varieties all count.
  • Try adding chopped bananas, apples, or other fruits to breakfast cereals.
  • Aim to include at least two different vegetables with most main meals. Do not over-boil vegetables. Steaming, stir-frying, or lightly boiling are best to retain the nutrients.
  • Try to have fruit with each meal or a small glass of fruit juice.
  • Try new recipes which include fruit. For example, some curries or stews include fruit such as dried apricots. Have fruit-based puddings. Fruit with yoghurt is a common favourite.
  • Consider cherry tomatoes, carrot sticks, dried apricots, or other fruits as part of packed lunches.
  • Fruit is great for snacks. Encourage children to snack with fruit rather than with sweets.

See separate leaflet called Eat More Fruit and Vegetables for more details.

Eat plenty of fibre

There are two types of dietary fibre:

  • Soluble fibre, which is found in oats, peas, beans, and many fruits and vegetables, dissolves in water to form a gel-like material. It increases feelings of fullness and can lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels.
  • Insoluble fibre is mostly found in wholegrains, and also in fruit and vegetable skins. It is not digested by the body but forms bulk in the gut, which helps to keep the bowels moving normally.

Starchy foods, and fruit and vegetables contain the most fibre. So the tips above on starchy foods and fruit and vegetables will also increase fibre. If you switch to wholemeal rice and pasta, and wholemeal bread, this can significantly increase your fibre intake. Pulses like lentils and beans are also full of fibre.

Eating higher-fibre foods can make you feel full for longer, which can help if you are trying to watch your weight.

Have plenty to drink when you eat a high-fibre diet (at least 6-8 cups of fluid a day).

See separate leaflet called Fibre and Fibre Supplements for more details.

Eat enough milk and dairy foods

Milk and other dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are important in your diet, as they provide calcium which is needed for healthy teeth and bones. They are also a source of protein and can provide other vitamins and minerals important for your health. Calcium-enriched soya milk and fromage frais also come under 'milk and dairy foods'. However, other foods such as butter and cream are not considered as dairy foods here, as they are also high in fat, so they come under the fatty foods group.

To make sure that you get enough calcium in your diet, you need three servings a day from this food group. One serving is:

  • 200 mls of milk.
  • A small (150 g) pot of yogurt.
  • A 30 g serving of cheese (about the size of a matchbox).

As the fat content of dairy foods can vary, make sure that you go for lower-fat options where possible, such as skimmed or semi-skimmed milk, low-fat cheese and low-fat yoghurt.

Non-dairy sources of calcium include leafy green vegetables, tinned fish (particularly if the bones are included), dried figs, almonds, oranges, sesame seeds, seaweed and some types of beans.

Non-dairy calcium needs to be eaten with a source of vitamin D, as the body needs this to help it absorb the calcium. Vitamin D can be found in eggs, fish and mushrooms, but is mostly made in the skin by contact with sunshine.

Some foods are fortified with calcium, such as breakfast cereals, some soya drinks and tofu. These may already have added vitamin D.

Eat other protein foods in moderation

Other protein-containing foods include meat, fish, eggs and plant sources of protein. Plant sources of protein include nuts, seeds, tofu, beans such as red kidney beans and canned beans, and pulses such as lentils and chickpeas.

You need a certain amount of protein to keep healthy. Protein is important for energy and for growth and repair in your body. Some of these high-protein foods can also be a source of iron and vitamins, including B vitamins and vitamin D. However, most people eat more protein than is necessary. Beware, some meats are also high in fat. Choose poultry such as chicken, or lean meat. Also, be careful, as many meat-based recipes include creamy or fatty sauces which are high in calories. When eating eggs, boil or poach them instead of frying. One portion of beans or pulses such as chickpeas or lentils is three heaped tablespoons.

There is some evidence that eating oily fish helps to protect against heart disease. Oily fish include herring, sardines, mackerel, salmon, fresh tuna (not tinned), kippers, pilchards, trout, whitebait, anchovies and swordfish. It is thought that omega-3 fatty acids in the fish oil help to reduce 'furring of the arteries' (the build-up of atheroma) which causes angina and heart attacks. Aim to eat at least two portions of fish per week, one of which should be oily.

Protein combining
Vegetarian sources of protein do not provide the correct balance of amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) for the body to use unless combined with each other. So people who are not eating a lot of fish, meat or eggs need to make sure that their meals contain two of the following:

  • Dairy products
  • Grains
  • Legumes (eg, beans, lentils)

Examples of protein-balanced meals are:

  • Baked beans on toast
  • Dhal and rice or chapatti
  • Baked potato with baked beans and cheese
  • A bowl of cereal with milk

Fat

For a long time, obesity and many other health problems have been blamed on the amount of fat that we eat. This makes sense because fat contains about twice as many calories per gram as carbohydrate or protein. However, more recent research suggests the picture is more complex than that. It suggests that carbohydrate plays a larger role in weight gain than we previously thought.

Also, the advice about which types of fats are better to eat has been under discussion. It was previously thought that saturated fats (mostly from animal sources like meat and butter) were more dangerous to health than poly-unsaturated fats. Poly-unsaturated fats are generally found in vegetable oils. Recent research does not support this view.

It probably is still a good idea to eat less fat if you are trying to lose weight.

Tips to reduce fat in your diet include the following:

  • Whenever possible, do not fry food. It is better to grill, bake, poach, barbecue, or boil food. If you do fry, use unsaturated oil. Drain the oil off the food before eating.
  • Choose lean cuts of meat, and cut off any excess fat.
  • Avoid adding unnecessary fat to food. For example, use low-fat spreads, spread less butter or margarine on bread, measure out small portions of oil for cooking, etc.
  • Watch out for hidden fats that are in pastries, chocolate, cakes, and biscuits.
  • Have low-fat milk, cheeses, yoghurts, and other dairy foods rather than full-fat varieties.
  • Avoid cream. Use low-fat salad cream, or low-fat yoghurt as a cream substitute.

See separate leaflet called Low-fat Diet Sheet for more details.

Don't have too many sugary foods and drinks

Sugary foods and drinks are high in calories, and too much may cause weight gain. It isn't just the amount of sugar that may be bad. Even eating small amounts of sugary foods (sweets, etc) too often is bad for teeth. Tips include:

  • Try not to add sugar to tea, coffee, and breakfast cereals. Your taste for sweetness often changes with time. Use artificial sweeteners only if necessary.
  • Reduce sugar in any kind of recipe. Use fruit as an alternative to add sweetness to recipes.
  • Try sugar-free drinks. Give children water or milk as their main drink.
  • If you eat chocolate or sweets, try to keep the quantity down. Eating them as part of a meal, and then brushing your teeth, is better than between meals as snacks.

Don't eat too much salt

Too much salt increases your risk of developing high blood pressure. Guidelines recommend that we should have no more than 6 g of salt per day. (Most people in the UK currently have more than this.) If you are used to a lot of salt, try gradually to reduce the amount that you have. Your taste for salt will eventually change. Tips on how to reduce salt include:

  • Use herbs and spices to flavour food rather than salt.
  • Limit the amount of salt used in cooking, and do not add salt to food at the table.
  • Choose foods labelled 'no added salt'.
  • As much as possible, avoid processed foods, salt-rich sauces, takeaways, and packet soups which are often high in salt.

Don't forget portion sizes

You may be eating very healthy foods but you still need to keep an eye on your portion sizes because if they are too large, you will still gain weight. Deliberately try to take smaller portions when you have a meal. Do not feel that you have to empty your plate. Perhaps change the plates that you have in your cupboard (which may be large) to more medium-sized plates. In this way you will naturally serve up smaller portions. Fill up on fruit and vegetables. Ask for a smaller portion when eating out or ordering a takeaway.

Think about what you are drinking

Many drinks contain calories, including alcoholic and many non-alcoholic drinks . Think about what you are drinking.

  • Choose healthier non-alcoholic drinks. Some tips: water contains no calories and can be both refreshing and healthy. Add a slice of lemon or lime to your water. Keep a jug in the fridge so that it stays cool. Also, think about switching your whole-milk latte coffee for a coffee made from skimmed or semi-skimmed milk.
  • Keep alcohol within the recommended limits. Drinking above the recommended limits can lead to serious problems. For example, drinking heavily can damage the liver, brain, stomach, pancreas, and heart. It can also cause high blood pressure. Also, alcohol contains a lot of calories, and too much can cause weight gain.
    • One unit of alcohol is 10 ml (1 cl) by volume, or 8 g by weight, of pure alcohol. For example, one unit of alcohol is about equal to:
      • Half a pint of ordinary-strength beer, lager, or cider (3-4% alcohol by volume); or
      • A small pub measure (25 ml) of spirits (40% alcohol by volume); or
      • A standard pub measure (50 ml) of fortified wine such as sherry or port (20% alcohol by volume).
    • There are one and a half units of alcohol in:
      • A small glass (125 ml) of ordinary-strength wine (12% alcohol by volume); or
      • A standard pub measure (35 ml) of spirits (40% alcohol by volume).
    • Men should drink no more than 21 units of per week, no more than four units in any one day, and have at least two alcohol-free days a week.
    • Women should drink no more than 14 units of alcohol per week, no more than three units in any one day, and have at least two alcohol-free days a week.
    • Pregnant women. Advice from the Department of Health states that ... "pregnant women or women trying to conceive should not drink alcohol at all. If they do choose to drink, to minimise the risk to the baby, they should not drink more than 1-2 units of alcohol once or twice a week and should not get drunk".
Original Author:
Dr Tim Kenny
Current Version:
Peer Reviewer:
Dr Hayley Willacy
Last Checked:
20/06/2014
Document ID:
4376 (v40)
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