Synonyms: Russell-Silver dwarfism, Silver-Russell syndrome, SRS, Silver's syndrome
This is an inherited syndrome featuring:
- Intrauterine growth restriction and low birthweight
- Asymmetrical somatic growth
- Overall growth retardation
- Characteristic facial abnormalities
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This is very rare.
- Reported cases since the discovery of the syndrome number in the hundreds but it may be underdiagnosed.
- Estimates of incidence vary from 1 in 3,000 births to 1 in 100,000.
Maternal age greater than 35 years.
The condition occurs sporadically and, in most cases, no genetic cause can be clearly identified.
- There have been families with autosomal dominant transmission including ring 2 chromosome, balanced translocation of 17q2 and duplication of sections of 7p.
- There is research linking chromosome 11 to growth abnormalities.
- There are x-linked varieties of the condition.
In general the features of the syndrome are most pronounced in young children and become less obvious as the patient ages.
The face is characteristically small and triangular, but the head circumference is usually normal for age. This, combined with short stature, gives the appearance of having a large head.
- Birth weight less than 2 standard deviation (SD) from mean.
- Poor postnatal growth - less than 2 SD from mean at diagnosis.
- Normal occipitofrontal circumference despite growth retardation.
- Asymmetrical patterns of growth.
- Normal head circumference, but characteristic small, triangular face.
- Blue sclerae.
- High forehead tapering to micrognathic jaw.
- Prominent nasal bridge and down-turned corners of mouth.
- Developmental abnormalities:
- Poor head control in infancy due to relatively large head compared with neck/trunk. Motor impairment due to poor muscle mass/function.
- About half have learning difficulties, particularly problems with arithmetic and language.
- Skeletal abnormalities:
- Late closure of the anterior fontanelle.
- Limb asymmetry and hemihypertrophy.
- Clinodactyly (incurving) of little finger.
- Camptodactyly (fixed flexion) of fingers.
- Syndactyly (fusion) of toes.
- Sprengel's neck deformity - unilateral shortening and webbing to trunk.
- X-ray abnormalities include:
- Delayed bone age.
- 'Ivory' epiphyses of distal phalanges.
- Small middle phalanx of little finger - present in 4 out of 5 cases.
- Pseudoepiphyses at the base of second metacarpal.
- Miscellaneous features:
- Causes of intrauterine growth restriction and failure to thrive.
- Fetal alcohol syndrome and Fanconi's syndrome also present similarly.
- Karyotyping of a child and both parents to look for known underlying genetic abnormalities.
- Radiographs of the hand may detect typical skeletal abnormalities.
- Growth can be improved by optimising nutrition:
- Enteral feeding may be needed.
- Growth hormone has been used in patients with a deficiency, although many have normal growth hormone (GH) levels.
- Early use of physiotherapy.
- Educational support.
Good, on the whole, with a reasonably full life expectancy.
However, there have been no long-term follow-up studies of sufficient numbers of sufferers to define life expectancy, morbidity and mortality definitively.
Further reading & references
- Child Growth Foundation. Russell Silver Syndrome/Intrauterine Growth Retardation (Information for Parents and image of a child with characteristic facies)
- Price SM, Stanhope R, Garrett C, et al; The spectrum of Silver-Russell syndrome: a clinical and molecular genetic study and new diagnostic criteria. J Med Genet. 1999 Nov;36(11):837-42.
- Silver HK, Kiyasu W, George J, et al; Syndrome of congenital hemihypertrophy, shortness of stature, and elevated urinary gonadotropins. Pediatrics. 1953 Oct;12(4):368-76.
- Russell A; A syndrome of intra-uterine dwarfism recognizable at birth with cranio-facial dysostosis, disproportionately short arms, and other anomalies (5 examples). Proc R Soc Med. 1954 Dec;47(12):1040-4.
- Prakash-Cheng A, McGovern M. Silver-Russell Syndrome. eMedicine; June 2009
- Ginsburg C, Fokstuen S, Schinzel A; The contribution of uniparental disomy to congenital development defects in children born to mothers at advanced childbearing age. Am J Med Genet. 2000 Dec 18;95(5):454-60.
- Silver-Russell Syndrome; SRS, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)
- Smith AC, Choufani S, Ferreira JC, et al; Growth regulation, imprinted genes, and chromosome 11p15.5. Pediatr Res. 2007 May;61(5 Pt 2):43R-47R.
- Font-Montgomery E, Stone KM, Weaver DD, et al; Clinical outcome and follow-up of the first reported case of Russell-Silver syndrome with the unique combination of maternal uniparental heterodisomy 7 and mosaic trisomy 7. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005 Aug;73(8):577-82.
- Kalousek DK, Vekemans M; Confined placental mosaicism and genomic imprinting. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2000 Aug;14(4):723-30.
- Russell-Silver Syndrome, X-linked, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)
- Anderson J, Viskochil D, O'Gorman M, et al; Anderson J, Viskochil D, O'Gorman M, et al; Gastrointestinal complications of Russell-Silver syndrome: a pilot study. Am J Med Genet. 2002 Nov 15;113(1):15-9.
- Azcona C, Stanhope R; Hypoglycaemia and Russell-Silver syndrome. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jul;18(7):663-70.
|Original Author: Dr Sean Kavanagh||Current Version: Dr Hayley Willacy|
|Last Checked: 22/03/2010||Document ID: 2743 Version: 21||© EMIS|
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