Perioral dermatitis is a chronic erythematous papulopustular facial eruption around the mouth. The aetiology of perioral dermatitis is unknown but it is associated with direct or indirect use of topical steroids for minor skin problems. Indirect use involves transfer to the face when steroids are being used elsewhere on the body. It is also associated with use of cosmetics, moisturisers and sunscreens.
- The incidence is estimated to be 0.5-1%. The incidence has decreased in recent years and this is likely to be due to greater awareness of the problems of prolonged use of topical steroids.
- Predominantly, it affects women aged 20-45 years, who account for an estimated 90% of the cases.
- The number of male cases is increasing and this is assumed to be because of changes in their use of cosmetics.
An underlying cause cannot be detected in all patients. The aetiology of perioral dermatitis is unknown. Apparent causes include:
- Topical steroid preparations. No clear correlation exists between the risk of perioral dermatitis and the strength of the steroid or duration of use.
- Fluoridated toothpaste.
- Physical factors: ultraviolet (UV) light, heat, and wind worsen perioral dermatitis.
- Candidiasis has been suggested as a provoking factor.
- Miscellaneous: hormonal factors are suspected because there may be a premenstrual deterioration. Oral contraceptives may also be a factor.
- Skin lesions occur as grouped follicular reddish papules, vesicles and pustules on an erythematous base around the mouth, nasolabial folds and the cheeks.
- A pale area adjacent to the border of the mouth is characteristic (sparing of the lip margins).
- Occasionally, the eruption can be more widespread, when the eyelids and forehead are also affected.
- There is often a sensation of burning and tension, but itching is rare.
- Lupoid perioral dermatitis is a severe variant of the disease with yellowish granulomatous infiltrates.
- Facial flushing and telangiectasia are not features of perioral dermatitis (but are seen in rosacea).
- Patients initially need an evaluation of any underlying factors.
- Reassurance and education about possible underlying factors and the time course of the disease. Washing hands after application of steroid cream elsewhere may be important.
- Substances that dilate skin blood vessels, eg alcohol and spicy foods, should be avoided.
- Cosmetics, cleansers and moisturisers should be avoided during treatment.
- Minor presentations, children and pregnant women should be treated with topical therapy. Metronidazole or erythromycin are administered in a non-greasy base. Ointments should be avoided.
- In severe forms, systemic treatment with anti-acne drugs is required. The drugs of choice are doxycycline (or tetracycline) and minocycline.
- In unresponsive and granulomatous forms, oral isotretinoin may be considered.
- Pimecrolimus cream has been shown to be effective and is an option when other treatment options have failed.
- Photodynamic therapy has been reported to be effective but there are currently no large studies to evaluate this treatment.
- An initial worsening of the symptoms may occur with treatment, especially if topical steroids are withdrawn. In cases of preceding long-term misuse of topical steroids, gradual steroid withdrawal with low-dose 0.1-0.5% hydrocortisone cream can be tried initially.
- Emotional complications may develop because of the nature and chronic course of the disease. Patients may have marked lifestyle restrictions due to the disfiguring facial lesions.
- Scarring may be a problem with the lupoid form of perioral dermatitis.
Further reading & references
- Perioral Dermatitis, Primary Care Dermatology Society; includes photographs
- Kammler HJ, Perioral Dermatitis, Medscape, Mar 2011
- Malik R, Quirk CJ; Topical applications and perioral dermatitis. Australas J Dermatol. 2000 Feb;41(1):34-8.
- Boeck K, Abeck D, Werfel S, et al; Perioral dermatitis in children--clinical presentation, pathogenesis-related factors and response to topical metronidazole. Dermatology. 1997;195(3):235-8.
|Original Author: Dr Colin Tidy||Current Version: Dr Richard Draper||Peer Reviewer: Dr John Cox|
|Last Checked: 19/08/2011||Document ID: 2597 Version: 22||© EMIS|
Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. EMIS has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but make no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other health care professional for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. For details see our conditions.